Monday 10 December 2018

Facetime on Android: Learn How with These Alternatives for Android by John

So you’ve recently jumped from using an iPhone to an Android smartphone. Don’t tell me, I already know that you’re missing the ability to FaceTime your contacts at a moment’s notice. FaceTime is one of those apps that Apple has really done well.
Facetime for iPad
FaceTime is one of the easiest video calling apps to use.
So now that you’re on Android, you’re probably asking if you can use FaceTime for Android because of course, anybody who has used it would want that. Or you may find yourself in any one of these positions. Click them to take your straight to the answer:
If you’re asking any of these three questions, read on and get the answers you have to these burning FaceTime questions.

Can You Use FaceTime on Android?

If you’ve been using an iPhone for a long time and just recently jumped on to an Android device, there’s a big chance that you’re missing FaceTime. Don’t worry, I would too.
Android Video Call
Video calling is available on Android.
FaceTime is such a solid video calling app, and so easy to use, that you’re hoping it is somehow usable on Android. Here’s the difficult truth: You can’t use FaceTime on Android.
Apple’s architecture is locked, which means FaceTime can only be used for video calls between Apple devices. And as much as Android is tweakable and “hackable”, you will not find some kind of FaceTime hack to make FaceTime usable on Android.
This might be a sad thing for you as a user, but fret not! There are numerous alternatives for video calling cross-platform from Android to iOS, and a lot of the great ones are free to use.
Check out this next section for alternatives you can use for FaceTime on Android.

What Are Good Alternatives for FaceTime on Android?

Fortunately for us, FaceTime is only one of the many apps you can use cross-platform – that is, video calling from Android to iOS and Apple devices.
Here are the best recommendations I can give you. These are great apps, and most of them you can even use free.
  1. Facebook Messenger

    Facebook Messenger is probably not the best among these apps, but this should be the easiest recommendation I can make. Most of your friends who use an iPhone are probably on Facebook anyway.
    Facebook Messenger Video Call
    Most of your friends are probably on Facebook, so video calling them on Messenger should be convenient.
    Facebook Messenger is Facebook’s chat app, but it also allows you to make voice and video calls for free on data and WiFi connections.
    The greatest thing about this is that you won’t have to convince a lot of people to get a new app or service, because they probably have Facebook, to begin with.
    Google Play download button
  2. Skype

    Skype is probably one of the oldest and well-known messaging apps that have scaled well into the video calling generation. The app does well as a video calling medium because a lot of people still use it.
    Skype Video Call
    Skype is one of the most popular messaging apps around.
    Skype is a free messaging app that has premium features, the latter allowing you to do overseas calls for a price. If you use a WiFi or data connection, you can easily do video calls.
    You need to have your iPhone friends download the app to use it, but that’s not going to be much of a problem because the app supports a wide range of devices, even being compatible with some smart TVs and game consoles.
    Google Play download button
  3. Google Duo

    Google Duo is probably the simplest app on this list – and by “simple”, I mean that it does nothing else but video calls, person-to-person, 1-to-1.
    Google Duo Video Call
    Google Duo is a simple 1-to-1 video calling app.
    There are no overly complicated features here – you install Google Duo and it ties your phone number to the app. Ask your iPhone friends to download and install the app and you’re good to go.
    This Google app may not have fancy features like group chat and other stuff, but for good old video calling, this will do the job. It’s the closest you can get to FaceTime for Android.
    Google Play download button
  4. Google Hangouts

    Google Hangouts is Duo’s big brother – it is Google’s full-fledged chat app, with all the bells and whistles. If you want to message in any form, Hangouts is how Google wants you to have it.
    Hangout Video Call
    Google Hangouts is Google’s answer to Facebook Messenger, and it’s pretty good.
    Hangouts will allow you to do video calls and so much more. You can have a “hangout” on video call (hence the name), and you can be joined by up to 9 of your friends in one hangout.
    You will need to have your iPhone friends download and install Hangouts on their iPhone, but once that’s done – it’s like having FaceTime for Android, only that it’s for Android.
    Google Play download button
  5. WhatsApp

    WhatsApp is another popular messaging service, and it only grew more in popularity when Facebook stepped in and bought the company in 2014. There’s a big chance your iPhone friends already have WhatsApp installed.
    Whatsapp Video Call
    WhatsApp will give you video calls and so much more.
    The users of WhatsApp already enjoy a lot of great features within the app – voice calls, private messaging, group chat, and yes, even video calls. You can even send recorded audio and video messages to your friends if they’re not online.
    WhatsApp will probably be one of the “go to” choices if people want to do video calls, so you might want to try it as a great alternative for FaceTime on Android.
    Google Play download button

How did this work for you?

Why Is FaceTime Not Usable on Android?

You will have to chalk this down to the difference in strategies between Google and Apple when it comes to their mobile operating systems. These two giants have very different approaches when it comes to apps on their platforms.
Apple, if you still don’t know, uses a closed ecosystem for most of its software. The iOS operating system on Apple devices is not open to tweaks and third party add-ons. You can only do it one way, and that is Apple’s way.
Apple vs. Android
So for FaceTime, the only real way to use the app is to have two Apple devices using it. There is just no way that Apple will allow FaceTime to be used cross-platform.
Google has championed the open source ecosystem with Android, and it reflects on its open approach to apps. Android is heavily customizable, and the apps on Android are distributed from a wider range of sources.
This obviously makes Android the “less secure” platform of the two, but it also opens up the operating system to a lot of customizability and it is friendly to cross-platform processes.
This is why a lot of video calling apps on Android are usable on Apple as well. Android’s strategy just makes for better cross-platform usage.


Are you sad that you can not use Facetime for Android. Don’t be! While FaceTime is indeed one of the best video calling apps known to man, there isn’t any reason why you can’t use an alternative.
And these alternatives not only work, but they also give you great features as well! Your friends using iPhones certainly won’t mind using an app that has great features and allows you to video call between Android and Apple.
So enjoy cross-platform video calling with the apps I’ve suggested. Who knows, you might just start falling in love with Android.

Thursday 1 November 2018

Spawning a Cottage Industry of Academic Analysis on Terrorism in Nigeria and Beyond: Old vs New Terrorism

Terrorism, although conceptually contested, no doubt, involves life threatening activities carry out by politically enthused self-employed sub-state groups. Terrorism encompasses criminal acts planned or premeditated to enflame a state of panic in the general public. Terrorism can be categorized into both old and new terrorism; judging from their activities around the world.

Old terrorism or terrorists which existed during the 1960s and 1970s had accents on territorial grumbling involving demands for liberation from imperialists or for alteration of allegedly unfair frontlines. The modus operandi during this period was certainly hard-nosed and not intended to capitalize on bloodshed but rather to gain traction and have many people watch-on rather than being killed. Indeed, their objectives were somewhat logically defendable while such aims were chased with some sense of fractionalization.

New terrorism or terrorists on the other hand who are often motivated by obsessive piety and religious cum cultural dogmas are destructive and nihilistic whilst very disposed to engage in suicide to gain martyrdom. Apart from setting out unfeasible objectives, they also fail to give forewarnings and do not engage in compromise, or to ask for the least, wheel and deal (bargaining). These set of terrorists find mass slaughter of non-combatants pleasing and may often not claim responsibility for their conducts; after all, they are only answerable to a divine being.

McClean, I. and McMillan, A. (Ed) (2009). Concise Dictionary of Politics. New York: Oxford University Press

United Nations (1994). Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism, General Assembly Resolution 49/60

Saturday 14 April 2018

If You're An Athlete, You Need To Take These Supplements

H1: If You're An Athlete, You Need To Take These Supplements

How was Muhammad Ali able to float like a butterfly and sting like a bee? How did Jordan take off from the free throw line? Have you seen that one handed catch by Odell Beckham Jr.? Crazy.

Athletes dedicate their entire lives to becoming the absolute best at what they do. They wake up before the sun, spend every available minute learning and perfecting their craft, and when everyone else has gone to bed, they’re still awake, practicing under the streetlights.

It’s this level of dedication that has got them to where they are.

But, there is something else that helps them achieve success and push them over the edge - supplements. While this may not necessarily be the case for Jordan, Ali or Beckham, most of the worlds greatest athletes include supplements in their daily routines.

No, there isn’t a supplement you can take that will give you the dedication these athletes have, but there are plenty of supplements on the market that can help you achieve our own athletic goals. Your goals may not be the same as the world's top performing athletes, but you can still benefit from the supplements they use.

What supplements should athletes take for improved performance?

First things first. What supplements do the world’s best athletes take on a regular basis?

The overwhelming majority of athletes are taking supplements to aid in there performance. There are many legal supplements available today that can help athletes gain an extra edge in their respective sports. But what vitamin supplements for athletes are the most important?

Omega 3 fatty acids are one of the most well known and most used supplements on the market. Omega 3’s may improve cardiovascular health and function, improve lipid profiles, improve brain function and mental acuity, and have powerful anti-inflammatory properties. When taken correctly, Omega 3’s can provide you with the biggest bang for your buck.

B-Vitamins are another popular supplement that can increase your energy production, improve your mood, and help your body detoxify. If you’re doing heavy workouts that may damage your muscles, it is a good idea to take B-Vitamins to help your body in the rebuilding process.  

Magnesium is one of the most recommended supplement for athletes because it’s essential to our biological systems and most athletes are likely deficient. A recent study suggested that up to 80% of Americans are deficient in magnesium, and that number is likely higher among athletes. Magnesium is important to athletes because it regulates heart rhythm, allows muscles to contract and relax properly, and reduces blood pressure. Every athlete should be taking magnesium.
Vitamin D is more like a hormone than a drug. Your body produces vitamin D when you’re exposed to the sun, which means you’re probably not producing enough. Unless you’re walking around naked in the sun for a few hours a day, you probably aren’t getting enough Vitamin D.  

Vitamin D can help reduce inflammation, improves mood and upper respiratory health and allows the brain to release melatonin so you can fall asleep easier. If for nothing else, vitamin D is important so you can get a good night's sleep after a long day in the gym.

Protein is probably the most popular and well known supplement for athletes. It’s almost second nature for people starting to train and workout to look up what protein shake they need to be drinking. If taken within 10 minutes of training, protein will reduce the amount of stress hormones released.

Protein should be eaten from animal sources throughout the day for best results. Too much protein can cause problems in the body, but the right amount repairs tissues and reduces muscle soreness.

Vitamin C is used by most people to help them get over a sickness. And while vitamin C can help protect the immune system, it also helps athletes recover from intense workouts. Vitamin C is found in most fruits and is nearly impossible to overdose on.  Take vitamin C during your post workout to help your body start repairing your muscles immediately.

Coenzyme Q10 may not be well-known, but it’s essential. CoQ10 is the only antioxidant found within cells, and it gets rid of lactic acid and other wastes. CoQ10 should be more widely known because of what it does for your heart.

There have been a number of young, healthy distance runners that have died of cardiac arrest recently, and it’s been found that there was a lack of CoQ10 in their hearts. This in turn caused scarring and damage from years of training. If you’re doing any kind of serious training, you should take CoQ10. The most usable form of CoQ10 is ubiquinone and delivered in oil. Just be sure not to take it at the same time as your fish oils because that could inhibit the absorption rate.

Branched Chain Amino Acids are said to be the best recovery supplement to take for athletes. Sipping on BCAAs during your workouts is shown to speed up the recovery and repair process. Research suggests that participants who ingest BCAAs experience significantly less muscle soreness and damage following a high-volume workout.  

Creatine Monohydrate is a muscle-building, power-enhancing supplement.  It’s one of the best supplements for strength and size, and one of the best supplements for strength gains.  If you’re looking to lose weight, creatine may not be what you’re looking for, at least initially, because creatine helps build muscle which makes the number on the scale go up.  Creatine also helps maintain energy during workouts, helps speed up your recovery, and enhances the quality of your weight training.

The best recovery drink after any workout is a protein shake. Whey protein is a very popular option, but whey protein doesn’t sit well on some people's stomachs. Because of that, vegan protein shakes are becoming more and more popular. If you’re looking for something to eat after your workout to compliment your supplements, there’s nothing better than some grilled chicken and roasted vegetables.  

Best Supplements Specifically For Runners

Probably the most widely used workout technique is running. Every athlete uses cardio in their workouts in some form or fashion, and there's no better cardio workout than a good old fashioned run. If running is a part of your routine, there are some specific supplements you can take to aid in your progression.

First, take the supplements mentioned above. Fish oil, magnesium, vitamin C are all essential supplements for runners, and magnesium carries extra benefits because it helps with endurance, energy, and muscle contraction.  

But there are a few others that are recommended specifically for runners.

Caffeine is actually one of the best supplements for endurance athletes like runners. It’s one of the best ways for runners to increase their stamina. Caffeine's ability to reduce perception of effort and help delay fatigue can make those longer runs more bearable.  As an added bonus, caffeine can increase fat oxidation, which can help with weight management.

Celadrin helps cushion bones and joints and improve flexibility. You can understand why this would be important to runners given the constant pounding on the joints. It's made from a blend of essential fatty acids and is fast acting and long lasting. It also benefits muscles, tendons and deep tissue.

L-Glutamine is good for runners because glutamine is depleted in the body when it undergoes physical stress. As an amino acid, l-glutamine helps fuel muscles and can stop them from becoming sore during exercise.

Zinc is another supplement that can help us maintain energy. Runners lose zinc during exercise, so it's important to supplement to build levels back up. Zinc also helps maintain a healthy immune system.

When thinking about creatine, most people don’t associate it with running. When you think creatine, you think of heavy lifting and building muscle, not running. However,  Creatine supplements can boost the quality of high intensity training, an essential part of a training routine for runners.

None of these supplements will magically turn you into an elite sprinter, but if you take them all as directed, you should begin to see improvements.  

Are PEDs and Supplements The Same Thing?

Don’t get supplements confused with performancing enhancing drugs. When talking about PEDs, most people are talking about various types of steroids. These PEDs are in a category all alone, and shouldn’t be confused with natural supplements.  

Performance enhancing drugs come with a laundry list of side effects. Depending on what you’re taking, you could develop acne, lose your hair, have severe headaches, increase your risk of stroke, and become much more aggressive and easily agitated.

Even though most PEDs aren’t legal and are extremely frowned upon in professional sports, they are still used, and sometimes more than you’d would think. If you are a baseball fan, you know all about the use of PEDs that rocked the MLB a few years back.  

One of America's most beloved athletes, Lance Armstrong, even had his reputation stained when he was caught “doping” for the Tour de France.  Every major sport has a program in place to test it’s athletes to be sure they aren't using any banned substances.

The most important thing to remember about PEDs is that they can cover a very broad spectrum of drugs and supplements. Caffeine, creatine and other very good and legal supplements we’ve talked about can all be considered legal performance enhancing drugs, but they are nothing like the illegal steroids people are usually referencing when they are talking about PEDs.

Supplementing your diet and workout routines might not get you to perform “like Mike,” but they do provide multiple benefits that people like me and you should take full advantage of. Whether your goal is to drop a few pounds, train for a marathon, or make the high school football team, adding supplements can do wonders for your workouts and recovery.

This article originally appeared here at and has been republished with permission from

Thursday 25 January 2018


Code-switching, a socio-linguistic term is a product of bi/multilingualism. This is because when languages are in contact they are bound to influence one another. Notable among the products of bi-/multilingual contact are borrowing, code-switching, interference and transfer. Code-switching can be described as a means of communication which involves a speaker alternating between one language and the other in communicating events. In other words, it describes someone who code-switches using two languages (interlingua) or dialects (intralingua) interchangeably in a single communication. On the other hand, code-mixing refers to embedding of various linguistic units such as affixes (bound morphemes) words (unbound morphemes, phrases and clauses that participants use in order to infer what is intended, which must reconcile what they hear with what they understand. Other terminologies commonly used in code-switching are ‘intra-sentential’, which describes switches within the sentence, and ‘inter-sentential’ used to describe switches between sentences. The occurrence of code-mixing is common in multilingual setting such as Nigeria, after all, it is convenient as a communicative strategy for social interaction. An average Nigerian is either bilingual or multilingual, and in few instances a monolingual.
However, code-switching in music is a deliberate style used an artist who would have prepared and reflected upon the lyrics before the release of the songs. Artists are conscious of the possibility that their words may be received by people outside their immediate context of language use. Even though hip-hop music is a genre or brand of music, developed in the 1970s, when Black parties became common in New York City, particularly the Bronx, a community well known for its large African-American population, hip hop music in Nigeria is a very popular brand of music which is heard practically in all parts of Nigeria and is both respected and appreciated by Nigerians, young and old.

Background Information on the Selected Artistes and Data
o        9ice
9ice, whose real name is Alexander Abolore Adegbola Alapomeji Ajifolajifaola was born on the 17th of April, 1980. He is from Ogbomosho, Oyo state but grew up in Bariga, Lagos. 9ice has been active in the music industry since the year 2000 up till date. He is a singer and a song writer as well as the founder of Alapomeji Records. One thing that make all his songs unique is his creative use of Yoruba proverbs and adages in his songs. He has won different awards amongst which he won the Revelation of the Year award as well as the best male Vocal Performer. A month later at the first Sound City Music Video Awards, 9ice was nominated in the category of best new artist. 9ice has also won other awards such as; Nigerian Entertainment Awards Most Indegenous Act 2007 and Nigerian Music Awards Best Act 2008.

o        Olamide
Olamide Adedeji (born 15 March 1989), known by his stage name Olamide but popularly called Olamide Baddo, is a Nigerian hip hop recording artist from Bariga, Lagos State. He records mostly in Yoruba, his native tongue. In 2011, he released his debut studio album Rapsodi while signed to Coded Tunes. YBNL, his follow-up album, was released under his label imprint YBNL Nation. The album was supported by the singles "First of All", "Voice of the Street", "Stupid Love", and "Ilefo Illuminati". On 7 November 2013, he released his third studio album Baddest Guy Ever Liveth. The album's singles include "Durosoke" and "Yemi My Lover". On 17 July 2013, Olamide became the first Nigerian to sign an endorsement deal with Cîroc. Olamide has been nominated and won several music awards, including multiple Nigeria Entertainment Awards and The Headies Awards.

These selected artists are some of the most respected Nigerian hip hop artists. They are popular artists and each chosen song from the various artists is recognized by almost all Nigerians. From their songs selected; Wedding Day, Anytime, Melo Melo and Lagos Boys, it is noticeable that the songs have Yoruba as part of the languages used in its composition. Although Yoruba is just one of the three major languages in Nigeria, it is the most used by the Nigerian hip hop artists amongst them all. When we listen to Nigerian hip hop songs, we will discover that a lot of the artists use Yoruba as part of their language(s) of composition. Not all these artists are Yoruba by origin; most of them acquired the language while growing up. This is because most of these artists reside in the western part of Nigeria. This is where most of them start their career as hip hop artists and as well as pursue it. You either find these artists in Lagos or in Ibadan with the majority of them in Lagos. Lagos is a Yoruba speaking state and in order to develop a closer relationship and better communication with the people around, the non-Yoruba speakers in this part of Nigeria tend to learn the language in addition to their mother tongue. Despite the fact that hip hop fans in Nigeria are not just the Yoruba speakers alone, the use of Yoruba by the Nigerian hip hop artists seem to be widely embraced all over the country.
Majority of Nigerian artists also adopt Nigerian Pidgin English (NPE), which is an English based language spoken all over the country. Beyond the important role it plays as an inter-ethnic lingua franca, it is also used by the Nigerian youth of the same tribe for communication. NPE is much more common among Nigerians in the coastal regions. In fact, we can say that NPE is gradually becoming a creole in some parts of Nigeria such as Delta State and Rivers State. As Pidgin is widely accepted and spoken in Nigeria, most Nigerian hip hop artists do not just see it as a form of communication among peers but also as a way for them to reach out to the whole of Nigeria and outside Nigeria with their songs.

Song 1
‘Wedding Day’ by 9ice
On my wedding day
On my wedding day
Aii, aii
On my wedding
On my wedding
On my wedding
Verse 1
She can’t stop calling
Her phone ringtone in my memory
Cos the first time we met
She has been like this
That’s why I treat her like a queen
She called me again
Like I don’t realise
We can’t but raise a family
I can’t deny
That I love her die
She be the woman of my life, woman of my life
Bros, no be lie
I feel alright  whenever she’s by my side
I’m proud to be her Mr. Right
Cos I know she’s gonna be my bride
I lay low so I can watch her take the lead
You know
On my wedding day
Ma gbé su léná
Ma fònà ro kà
Gbogbo àwọn e still dey dey
This time around, omo sè gòbe
Na you I go marry… aya wa ni
To God be the glory… Ìyàwó wa ni
Na you I go marry… aya wa, aya wa
To God be the glory.
Verse 2
Ah I know, she’s the right woman for me
I believe she’ll be there when I’m in need
It is necessary to help her achieve her dream
She’s my angel
Let me be the fool
As a princess
She’s ready to be my boo
Love wan tin tin
Everything skele wo go skele, na bintin
Love wan tintin
That thing called love
Omo no be film trick
E dey do me anywhere wey: dey like
Make she dey there … together
We are meant to be …. Forever
Èkùró la lábákú ẹ̀wà
On our wedding day
Ma gbé su léná
Ma fò nà rokà
Gbogbo àwọn e still dey dey
This time around, ọmọ se gobe
Na you I go marry… aya wa ni
Verse 3
To God be the glory … ìyàwó wa ni
Na you I go marry … aya wa, aya wa
To God be the glory
To iíjò ìfé bà ti rò
Le e lórí
Kélébé kélébé ló ma ma se bí tanwíjín
Ìfẹ́ a gbọ́kàn rẹ so
Bí ẹni tó so wín
Kò sí oun tí òbí rẹ máa sọ́
Tó má wọ́ ẹ́ léti
You can ask Fadékẹ́mi at which level bó se rí
Àkànkẹ́ mí nkọ́
She can’t stop calling me wákàtí wákàtí
Ló ma fí n pè mí
E má ba mi dú ò
Ọmọ mì ni ọmọ yẹn
On our wedding day
Ma gbé su léná
Ma fọ̀ nà ro kà
Gbogbo àwọn e still dey dey
This time around, ọmọ sè gobe
Na you I go marry … aya wa, aya wa
To God be the glory
On our wedding day
Ma gbé su léná
Ma fọ̀ nà ro kà
Gbogbo àwọn e still dey dey
This time around, ọmọ sè gobe
Na you I go marry … aya wa, aya wa
To God be the glory … ìyàwó wa ni
Na you I go marry … aya wa, aya wa

In this song 9ice tries to tell us about how strong his love for the “woman of his life” is. He talks about how it feels to have her in his life and what he would do on their wedding day. The use of code mixing and code switching started in the chorus with the line “She be the woman of my life, woman of my life… Bros, no be lie” which translate to “She is the woman of my life, friend this is not a lie”. This is a classic mix of English language and Nigerian Pidgin English to express his unfettered commitment to the woman of his life. He also expresses in another line “Me and my chikala na wantintin… Everything skele we go gbele: na bintin” which means “My darling and I are in love, every other thing that comes our way is trivial”. These lines encompasses three different languages; English, Pidgin (chikala) and Yoruba. This is an excellent work by the artist in perpetuating code switch and code mixing. In another line, he says “gbogbo awon e still dey dey…this time around, omo se gobe”. Here 9ice mixes and conveniently switches between Yoruba, Hausa and English languages to communicate his idea that this time around, as a result of the wedding, it is good-bye to external parties. The code switching here is the use of three (3) separate languages in just two lines of a song wherein he started with Yoruba and ended with Hausa language.
More so, 9ice’s knowledge of code-mixing and using bilingual codes features in verse 2 when he notes “omo no be film trick”. This statement ordinarily is an amalgam of two different languages; Pidgin and English Language, and translates to friend, it is real.
He further sings in verse 3 that “to God be the glory…iyawo wa ni… Na you I go marry… aya wa, aya wa” and towards the end, “You can ask Fadekemi at which level bo seri”. Code mixing and code switching is once again adopted here when he mixed English language (to God be the glory), Yoruba language (iyawo wa ni) Pidgin English (na you I go marry) and again Yoruba language (aya wa, aya wa) which literally translates to “To God be the glory… she is our wife… It is you I will marry… Our wife, our wife”. He further mixes English, Pidgin and Yoruba languages in just one line to display his proficiency in code mixing and code switching. This statement means “You can ask Fadekemi how it all went down at the appropriate time”.
In another line as indicated above, he hints “She can’t stop calling me, wakati wakati”. This is a metaphorical switch between English and Yoruba languages to mean “She can’t stop calling me at every hour of the day”.

Song 2
‘Anytime’ by 9ice
Ìrírí Ìrírí ni
Ìgbésí aiye mi
Ni ìpinlẹ̀ ẹ̀sẹ̀ mi

This life can be funny
Look around you and tell me what you see
Ìyà kiò she omi obè
Bàbá máje kín jẹ ìyà
Obè pàdé mi ni ìgunpa ni ama fìn jẹ̀’ba
Pẹ̀lú ẹja sháwá
I dey think about those days
At the same time, I dey think about how mama go
Bitter all day
She use to complain a lot but then,
Ọmọ boi no get much
I had to move her away
But, àwọn tilé kín
9ice ti sá ní ílé
Barriga born … kò mà lèyì padà
Ojú àpá kó lè jọ́ ojú ara
Anytime I think about those days,
That when I believe that,
We really set the place
Anytime I remember how the street dictates,
Some of us can even scale through the boundage.

It was a very big mess
As our lives was played like chess
I lost my very dear friend
“Saheed Ishola” òrun re re
Anytime the rain is falling
Me and my mummy
Ní’sè la má gbón omi
We don’t sleep when you guys are snoring
No time
Ení bá lo’mo
Ogun le bínú konú, we no mind
We no sign
We no crime, no crime
We put through all this hard times,
We no crime, no crime

Abule stone, taught me the basks
CMS grammar school, add to my credit
Everytime ni mo lo sí ilé kéú
Weekends ni màǹ kiri ata lọ sí ọdọ̀ bèhù
Mummy àgbà, you might he little afar
Just wanna let you know I love you die

Láti píníshín ni moti já fáfá
E’rè pà lò máń mú mi jarunpà
Mo ma n ‘run tìn bà tì nì kàtá
If I can’t afford medicine,
Máya lo epo pupa
These are my beginnings

Ire ni
Ìgbésí aiyé mí
Ni ìpinlẹ̀ ẹ̀sẹ̀ mi
Ohun ojú mí rí
My beginning
Now, motigbọ́n, mo tójú bọ́
Mo ja gbọ́n,
Mo ní ọmọ tí mo ń tọ́,
Aiyé yí oòle, no condition stays for long
Ní aiyé ijọ́si, olówó ni ḱlá
Ní ìgbà èdè yíi,
Tattoo di ohun àrà
Ohun tó jẹ́ tiwa ḱmá ma lá fi iwé

Ààbà tún ra mú,
Ó se ohun àrà ire
Aiyé yí oòle
Ọmo ẹ̀dá ádámọ̀ lósọọ ilé aiyé di ogun
Wọ́n sọ aiyé di àwáìlọ
Bí àdìgún se ń gun òkè ni wọ́n gbé ogun
But mo ti jé kí òye wọ́n ní wípé
Àyà fi ọlọ́run
Kọ̀wa tón bí yègè dè yín
I am close to grammy
Those that stands behind me
The journey is so fac, kí má íse kèrémí
Òjò tí apagún bò
Ohun ojú tí rí
Ẹnu ko le róyìn.

The above is another piece from 9ice which describes his sudden transformation from penury to opulence detailing what he went through from childhood to adulthood which he adjudged as indescribable. In this song, as with the previous song, 9ice conveniently adopts code mixing and code switching to appeal to the listener. For a start, he notes “At the same time, i dey think about how mama go bitter all day”, a clear mixture of English and Pidgin languages which means “At the same time, I keep thinking about how my Mother feels bitter all day”. Here, he is reminiscing over how his mother used to feel sad in those days due to his poor situation. At another point he says “I lost my very dear friend "Saheed Ishola" orun re re” meaning “I lost my very dear friend Saheed Ishola, rest in peace”. Here, he switches between English and Yoruba to remember and wish his friend a peaceful eternal sleep. 9ice in another line says “Me and my mummy, ni' se la mama gbon omi”. This is switch between English and Yoruba language again, meaning “Me and my mummy, we were accustomed to draining water” to describe their level of poverty which denied them sleep after rainfall when others were snoring.
“Ogun le inu okonu, we no mind” is another example of code mixing and code switching in the song used expressly in the form of a Yoruba proverb and Pidgin to say “It is a tough world where everybody minds his business, we do not mind” and means that in the face of this abject poverty, they were left all to themselves. 9ice also notes “We put through all this hard times, we no crime, no crime”. This is conveniently use of English and Pidgin in the same line to say “We put through all this hard times without engaging in crime” and express his level of perseverance in spite of the continued poverty.
9ice in another line also hints “Weekends ni ma'n kiri ata lo si odo behu, Mummy agba, you might be little afar”. This translates to “I hawk pepper to Behu’s place during weekends. Grandmother, you can readily attest to this”. The use of English and Yoruba here is not only commendable but also outstanding. He further hints “If i can’t afford medicine, maya lo epo pupa” by switching between English and Yoruba languages to say “If i can’t afford medicine, I will rather use palm oil” to further describe how poor they were.
9ice also says “Ohun oju mi ri, my beginning” meaning “I have seen a lot, my beginning”. The use of two separate languages in a line to say he has seen a lot. He also says “Aiye yi oole, no condition stays for long” meaning “This world is not so difficult, after all, no condition is permanent”. Once again, this is another switch between two distinct languages. In another line, he once again code mix and code switch his message that “Kowwa ton bi yege de yin, i am close to Grammy” meaning “To your disappointment, I am close to Grammy”, that is, despite their scorns, he is finally close to winning the prestigious Grammy Awards; an indication that hard work pays.
Towards the end of the song, he once more engages his well accustomed use of code mixing and code switching that “The journey is so far, ki ma ise kere mi” meaning “The journey is so far, it has not been easy”.

Song 3
‘Mélò Mélò’ by Olamide
I no dey denge denge
I no dey pose eh
My baby give me biscuit I want sugar
The things you do me,
Bí’òjò bá rọ̀ kò se wí
Bí orun báràn, bí óruǹ bá ràn kò seéso
Mélò mélò, mélò mélò la fẹ́ wí
Mélò mélò, mélò mélò la fẹ́ sọ
Àní mélò mélò, mélò la fẹ́ wí
Mélò mélò, mélò mélò la fẹ́ sọ
Verse 1
Eyín fún jowó, ẹyín mẹ́nugún
Apọ́n bépo rẹ́ mí, àkọǹkẹ́ igi lẹ́yiǹ ọgbà mi
Nígba kòsówó, ní gba kò siọ́la, nígba kò sóró
Tí ayé ròmípin you stood by me
I know I make some mistakes but I don dey regret
Now I no go forget to cherish wetin I get
The first day we met; told you how I felt
Walahi I dey melt, my baby you’re the best
I no dey denge denge I no dey pose eh
My baby give me biscuit I want sugar
The things you do me, bí’òjò bá rọ̀ kò se wí
Bí orun báràn, bí óruǹ bá ràn kò sé sọ
Mélò mélò, mélò mélò la fẹ́ wí
Mélò mélò, mélò mélò la fẹ́ sọ
Àní mélò mélò, mélò mélò la fẹ́ wí
Mélò mélò, mélò mélò la fẹ́ sọ
Verse 2
For better for worse, for rich and for poor
Kò sí elòmirán àfì iwo nìkan
Ìgbà tí’ mòún hustle, tí mòún squat lábúlé
Tí mò dàrìnká jábàtà, tí mòún fiẹ s̀ sha lábúlé
Shèbí ìwọ lorímí and you showed me love regardless
Them other ladies them no dey send me at first
I know you make some mistakes now you don dey regret
Now you no go forget to cherish wetin you get
Mélò mélò, mélò mélò la fẹ́ sọ
I no dey denge denge I no dey pose eh
My baby give me biscuit I want sugar
The things you do me, bí’òjò bá rọ̀ kò se wí
Bí orun báràn, bí óruǹ bá ràn kò sé sọ
Mélò mélò, mélò mélò la fẹ́ wí
Mélò mélò, mélò mélò la fẹ́ sọ
Àní mélò mélò, mélò mélò la fẹ́ wí
Mélò mélò, mélò mélò la fẹ́ sọ
Verse 3
Isú parade ódi iyán, àgbàdo parade ódi ẹ̀kọ
Bàndọ parade ódi olówó, my baby parade ódi bess
Ìwọ nìkan-ìwọ ìwọ nìkan shosho
àfi  ìwọ nìkan shosho shosho, àfi ìwọ nìkan shosho

I no dey denge denge I no dey pose eh
My baby give me biscuit I want sugar
The things you do me, bí’òjò bá rọ̀ kò se wí
Bí orun báràn, bí óruǹ bá ràn kò sé sọ
Mélò mélò, mélò mélò la fẹ́ wí
Mélò mélò, mélò mélò la fẹ́ sọ
Àní mélò mélò, mélò mélò la fẹ́ wí
Mélò mélò, mélò mélò la fẹ́ sọ

In this song Olamide is making reference to his girlfriend who has stayed loyal to him and by his side through thick and thin even when other ladies deserted him for not having enough. He therefore wishes to express his profound gratitude to this dedicated, dependable and reliable girlfriend of his. Basically, the first line of the song in written using Nigerian Pidgin while the whole of verse one is a mixture of Nigerian pidgin, English and Yoruba languages showing diversity and language dexterity on the part of the writer; a good knowledge of code mixing and code switching. In line 3 of the song which started with English language and suddenly switches to Yoruba language “The things you do me, bi’ojo ba ro kose wi” to convey the main message that her loyalty is unquantifiable and translate to “The things you do for me, come rain, it is unspeakable”.

Olamide, in another line as indicated above, sings “I know I make some mistakes but I don dey regret” meaning “I know I made some mistakes but now I regret” which is a code-switch between two languages; English and Pidgin languages. Olamide in expressing his proficiency in code mixing and code switching further sings “Walahi I dey melt, my baby you’re the best” which literally translates to “I swear, I am melting, my baby you are the best”. This is a convenient switch and mixture of three languages of Hausa, Pidgin and English, in just nine (9) words and one (1) musical line.
In verse two, Olamide says “Ko si elomiran afi iwo nikan, Igba ti’moun hustle, ti moun squat takunle” meaning “There is no one else except for you, when I was hustling and squatting with Takunle”. Here, he mixes both English and Yoruba languages in an almost non-existent way to describe his lady’s commitment to him. Olamide also adopts code mixing and code switching to aver that “Shebi iwo lorimi and you showed me love regardless…Them other ladies them no dey send me at first… I know you make some mistakes now you don dey regret”. This ordinarily is the back and forth use of Yoruba, English Pidgin languages and it means “You found me and showed me love regardless… The other ladies didn’t have time for me… I know you made some mistakes but now you are regretting”.

Song 4
‘Lagos Boys’ by Olamide
Ladies sneh and gentlemen sneh
I’m your host for today sneh
They call me baddo sneh
Eyan n’la sneh, eyan n’la n’na la la la sneh
Ọlọ́run sneh, ota sneh
Òtà tà tà tà tà sneh ta bi atarodo sneh
Okey sneh, lets go sneh.

They call me alágbe oh, e má lé mi jáde oh
I just want to party oh, ẹgbé dolla jáde oh
Baby kíló washey oh, eré lawá wá shey oh
And you knew we Lagos boys, amọlà t’ówó kọ

Skeske robo ske, robo skeske robo
Skeske robo ske, robo skeske robo
Skeske robo ske, robo skeske robo
Skeske robo ske, robo skeske robo

Èmi sneh, baddo sneh, m’n hot lọ́wọ́ lọ́wọ́ sneh
Wọ́n ní money mí pọ̀ gan sneh
Mo ní connection gan low sneh
We killing all the show lo sneh
Ladies sha ma jo lọ sneh
And after I kill this show lo sneh
The next day mo ti fó lo sneh
Baby sneh, why you dey dulling sneh
Back it up, no worries sneh
Nobody ma sofún mommy sneh
Ma sọfún daddy sneh, ọmọ yi gbòndí sneh
Shout out sáwọn tèmi sneh
Agége sneh de Mushin sneh
Smellos kemalo de bi sneh
Àwa o ráyè òshì sneh

They call me alágbe oh, ẹmá lé mi jáde oh
I just want to party oh, egbé dollar jáde oh
Baby kilo washey oh, eré làwá wá shey oh
And you know we Lagos boys, aimọlà t’ówó kọ

Skeske robo ske, robo skeske robo
Skeske robo ske, robo skeske robo
Skeske robo ske, robo skeske robo
Skeske robo ske, robo skeske robo

Óyá, alayé kílón shelè sneh
Wọ́n nípé moti yẹgbeh sneh
Ẹbá mi kí wọ́n pẹ̀lẹ́ sneh
Tó bá n bínú kò jégbè sneh
Óyá mégbe wó, omo dégbé neh
Werey wán’le bí yèpè sneh
Mummy emálo tijú sneh
Do what you really wan do sneh
Baby sneh, why you dey dulling sneh
Naija iyries
Back it up, no worries sneh
Nobody má sọfún mommy sneh
Ma sọfún daddy sneh, omo yí gbọndi sneh
Shout out sáwọn tèmi sneh
Bàrígà  sneh dé lérè sneh
Smellos kemálo dé bí sneh
Bé bá ti férí werey sneh

They call me alágbe oh, ẹmá lé mi jáde oh
I just want to party oh, egbé dollar jáde oh
Baby kilo washey oh, eré làwá wá shey oh
And you know we Lagos boys, aimọlà t’ówó kọ

Skeske robo ske, robo skeske robo
Skeske robo ske, robo skeske robo
Skeske robo ske, robo skeske robo
Skeske robo ske, robo skeske robo
Jo oh, I júba for my Governor, governor Ambode
I fall for my daddy, bàbá saato
I fall for my kábíèsí, ọba ẹlẹ́gùshí … olóhun
I fall for you pieces, olóhun after you na you o
(Talks to beat almost fade)
Skeske robo ske, robo skeske robo
Skeske robo ske, robo skeske robo
Skeske robo ske, robo skeske robo
Skeske robo ske, robo skeske robo
The song above is a greeting to “Lagos Big-boys” and how hard they party, not minding how money spent, in as much as they will derive maximum fun. Olamide, well known for his excessive use of code mixing and code switching of majorly three languages; English, Yoruba and Pidgin, to convey his message in songs to his fans and other listeners, also adopted the technique in the above song which he started in lines 8 and 9 where he says “They call me alagbe oh, ema le mi jade oh
I just want to party oh, egbe dollar jade oh” translated as “They call me a beggar, do not send me away, I just want to party, bring out the dollar”. The stylistic use of English and Yoruba shows the party-mentality of the artiste with respect to this song.
He went further to say “Won ni money mi po gan sneh, mo ni connection gan” meaning “I have been adjudged of being rich and having a lot of connections”. The use of Yoruba followed by English language here explains what people think of the artiste in terms wealth and connection as a Lagos ‘big-boy’. Olamide once again uses code mixing and code switching when he notes that “And after i kill this show, the next day mo ti fo lo sneh” which translates to “And after I perform in this show, the next day I will be out of here”. The artiste also mixes and switches between Yoruba and English languages when he says “Nobody ma sofun mommy”, that is “Nobody will tell Mommy”, referring to the ladies at the party to party hard and not worry about anyone reporting to their mother.
He also alternated between English and Yoruba languages when he sings “Shout out sawon temi” translated as “Shout out to my people” and “Do what you really wan do” meaning “Do what you really want to do” which is a switch between English and Pidgin languages. In his retort to revere some bigwigs, he also adopted code mixing and code switching which he feels will appeal more to them i.e. “I fall for my daddy, baba santo… I fall for my kabiesi, oba elegushi… olohun… I fall for you pieces, olohun after you na you o” which translates to “I greet Daddy Santo, King Elegushi…God… I greet you specially, God, you are irreplaceable”. This is a well calculated attempt to use a mixture of English and localized languages to appeal to the interests of revered.

Thank you for reading…
NBThis piece is an intellectual property of the writer, do feel free to disseminate as appropriate; nonetheless with due acknowledgement.
AKINYETUN, Tope Shola [Comparative Politics & Development Studies]

Babalola, E.T. and Taiwo, R. (2009). Code-Switching In Contemporary Nigerian Hip-Hop Music. (Not Available) pp1-27
Kuponiyi, A.O. (2013). Code-Switching in Contemporary Nigerian Hip-Hop Songs. M.A. Thesis Submitted to University of Ghana, Legon.
Liadi, O.F. and Omobowale, A.O. (2011).  Music multilingualism and hip hop consumption among youths in Nigeria.  International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 3(12):469-477.